A Common Sense Economic and Market Structure Model for Developing Countries

Introduction

For more than thirty years developing countries’ economic problems have created major financial crises in the international community. Developing countries have remained so due to their low-income economies. African and Middle East countries live in ethnic diverse communities and are subject to political instability and corruption than Asia and Latin American countries that live in more homogeneous communities. There is more cost involved in a population of workers and who belong to different ethnic groups because of diversity, cultural differences, religion and language. The purpose of this economic development model is to address economic stability, the problems (value inhibitors), solutions (value drivers), the strategies and implementations of the economic enhancement in order to help the developing countries be less dependent on developed countries. So many studies have been conducted on developing countries, but none of the studies have focused on how the developing countries could apply or use the economic models with less participation of the industrialized countries. World Bank and United Nations ought to examine minutely any potential foreign aid application while focusing on this model for developing countries. This model will enhance in devising a strategic means of monitoring the developing countries before distributing fund to those that may not use the model or practice noncompliance. The practical sense of the use of this model is to elevate the developing countries to economic success and stability, and reduce their dependency on developed countries.

Role of leadership

In developing countries, most leaders behave and think differently. Although, these may not be tolerated by developed countries, they are the norm and are based on their ethnicity, beliefs, religion, culture, social classes, and assumption of supremacy. Negotiating and managing conflicts in developing countries is a matter of understanding the genetic makeup of that country. Diversity may create needs but these needs do not have to be neglected in order to create balance among the ethnic or sectarian groups. A Western countries’ style of negotiating and resolving conflicts may not be applicable in the developing countries where religion and ethnicity have continuously impacted the leadership in those countries. Hence, the inefficient and ineffective leadership have led to social development and economic neglect that have caused the worse economy and poverty in those areas. If politics are set aside and economic benefits are put in the forefront by these developed countries, the chances of conflict resolution will be increased.

Leaders who have vision for change may think about what the impact the economic and market development will have in the long-run, and in the locations and in the life of its citizens. The social problems in Malaysia exist because of the ethnic Chinese who are not Muslim in a country where over 90 percent of the population is Muslim.

In developed countries, situations create focus on civilization and leadership, where civilization shapes leaders and leaders shape civilization. Power is treated as a shared resource, but in most developing countries coercion is the system used by leaders. Leaders use physical, economic, and social threats and punishments to induce change in followers for the sake of the leaders. The leaders therefore have become power wielders. These leadership problems have impacted the economic and market structure of the countries. Hence, a new model may mean a step to a new and better way of life for all the developing countries. The Western part of the Asia continent is predominantly Muslims and still have untapped resources that have not been explored because of dictatorship, politics, religion, culture, beliefs, and diversity. Exploring these countries and helping them stabilize will transcend to trading with other developing countries, which will in turn pull them out of poverty, instability, and create peace among the sectarian and ethnic groups.

Asia

Before the coming of the tsunami in December 26 2005, the South Asian countries were poor and developing. Both the South and East Asia have untapped economic sources. These potential raw materials need to be explored in order to help develop the economic and market structure of the region. The tsunami destroyed the infrastructure, economy, and the lives of the people of the South Asian countries. The 6.3 in magnitude earthquake that hit the central java of Indonesia on May 27, 2006 destroyed what was left of the tsunami. These countries will benefit from cash crop, livestock, and poultry production because of their adequate weather and availability of natural water, which will not require a high technology in order to irrigate the farmland. Mechanized farming will need to be introduced and implemented to aid in maximizing production of agricultural products. The Eastern part of South Korea has a comparative advantage over industrial, commercial, and manufacturing production. Producing and trading on building, automobile, motorcycle, and other petty materials in the form of buying and selling will enhance in the development of the market setting and economy. This will help in the stabilization of the East and South Asian countries. A stable economy will help resolve and manage conflict in these countries that have different ethnic groups and history of diversity. The economic and market structure may also aid in the stability of the leadership, political and social system. The environmental problems may need to be addressed in order to guard against pollution or any unhealthy by products or waste materials that may cause harm to people or have short or long term health problems or may be fatal to people. If these countries are stable, they will attract foreign investments rather than needing foreign aid. The military disturbances in East Timor are not helping the economic and the market structure of the young independent country.

The four factors that determine the economic growth are labor, capital, land, and Entrepreneurship. Developing countries have more labor force with lower wages than developed countries and yet their economic growth is still lower than that of the developed countries. Capital is another problem facing developing countries. They need resources such as equipments, machines, factories, and money to work with. Labor without capital is synonymous to guns without bullets. Capital will also represent an investment that will pay off in the future. Most developing countries have untapped resources such as oil, gold, diamond, minerals, forests, and water that represent land which by themselves cannot stimulate economic growth unless they are explored and converted to goods and services. Technology enhances economic growth. A group of agricultural researchers from Texas A&M University and University of California-Davis acquired a four-year grand of $4.4 million from U.S Agency for International Development’s Mission to Afghanistan eGrazing. This discovery will aid the livestock herders to successfully tend to cattle, sheep, horses and goats. If this system had been in place, it may have made an impact during the tsunami in Indonesia. Political and social factors that inhibit Economic Growth are corruption, instability, lack of leadership and administrative skills, population growth, and lack of business enterprises.

Africa

African countries are very poor and in dare need of economic and market structure development. Before these countries go global, they may to have sufficient needs of life by taking comparative advantage of their sources of raw material. Some have cash crops that need to be irrigated, some have livestock and poultry that need to be technologically upgraded, and market structure that needs to be redesigned, developed and implemented. The improvement of the agriculture will help the poor farmers send their children to school, build infrastructure, develop the quality of institutions, and make a smooth run of transportation.

Middle East

Middle East region is a turbulence area because of instability associated with religion, oil, dictatorship, and developed countries’ influence. The Iraq war has devastated the whole region, and couple with the Israel, Palestinian, and Lebanese conflict, which has created further economic drawbacks that amount in billions of dollars. The destruction of the infrastructures, and the lost of lives have sent the economy of Lebanese country decades backwards.

Latin America

Development in Latin Americans countries could stem from agriculture, forestry and fishing, to mining, and manufacturing. These Latinos can help in building their countries rather than trying to immigrate to United States of America. If guided, they will improve their countries’ economy and help in the marketing of agricultural, manufacturing and other natural resources. Immigrants spend much time in the state of California farms, Illinois factories, North Carolina, and areas in the north east of United States of America working mostly in food industries. These efforts can be redirected to Latin America in order to develop the entire area.

Political struggles, lack of administrative skills, and power supremacy have strangled the economic and market structure of most countries in Latin America. For decades the Latinos have traveled north of the border to United States of America in search of better lives. This economic situation has resulted in the deaths and mutilations of people trying to enter United States of America. The smugglers who are known as the “coyotes” have made huge profits for attempting to transport these illegal Latinos across the border. It is very dangerous ventures because of the hot temperature, train transportation, unhygienic felt, bad weather, lack of food, water, and other unknown dangers along the road to the border. Immigrants spend months traveling to the border and most times do not make it to United States because they are caught and send back south of the border. Most gang groups have resorted to kidnapping wealthy Latin Americans living in the United States side of the border for huge ransoms, demand thousands of dollars in exchange to the kidnapped victims and most of the times these victims are killed. Families are separated due to fractured economy when men live their families for years in search of money for food in the north of the border. Income is not redistributed to the population, the rich gets richer while the poor gets poorer. The people of Latin Americas deserve more from their leaders and their natural resources, which has not happened because of corruptions and drug kingpins who have operated by intimidation, coercion, and fear.

The Four “Pies” facing developing countries

Poverty stems from lack of education, opportunities, and low literacy level. These countries do not put too much emphasis in education as they resort to marrying more than one wife and having too many children. Farming and herding have been their main source of food production and livelihood. Ethnicity is attributed to too many tribes, languages, and dialects. It has also contributed to lack of trust amongst different ethnic groups due to lack of understanding each other’s culture and tradition. They have become one country but different people. Instability is created by lack of a stable government by corrupted leaders, who always come to power for the purpose of stealing funds. That ultimately leads to no mandate to build infrastructure, and develop the economy and market for the country. When people’s needs are not met, most of the times in developing countries, rebellion begins when the government neglects a certain group of people. When people are deprived of the necessities of life while the other group has it all because of their ethnicity and religious sect, it creates tensions that lead to a “time-bomb” ready to explode. These most times cause conflicts that are attributed to hatred, sabotage, riots, revolution, and deaths. This is common in the developing countries where corruption and venality have played a role due to self-centeredness on the part of the leaders. Leaders therefore resort to intimidation of their citizens and thereby control these countries by coercion.

17 Strategies for implementing economic and market structure in developing countries

(1)A comprehensive education across the country needs to be instituted. This may be in the local dialect and language in order to make it easy for the citizens of that area. Assessment test of individuals’ talent and abilities need to be explored, recognized and documented to be sure where these individuals’ maximum potentials lie. A program needs to be instituted in order to teach the citizens methods of family planning and birth control. Individuals also need to understand the social and economic benefit of the birth control.

(2)Some individuals may have ability in agricultural work (Crops/livestock/Poultry). Locations with fertile lands need to be located and utilized for crops and livestock, and those areas without fertile land may need to be used based on its comparative advantage, such as poultry, storage of byproducts, and market areas.

(3)Supermarkets are to be constructed in all densely populated locations or urban cities to enable the young men and women find and keep jobs. The stores will consist of three shifts so that students can work and at the same time go to school and do their schoolwork. These markets will be located in the areas where people can afford to shop. A Wal-mart (USA) approach will be most appropriate in these locations. The four utilities of market will have to be considered and instituted as the main reason for the location of the supermarkets.

(4)Consideration of the product that people will want, the price to set for the product, the place that will be appropriate for the supermarkets and their nearness to the people, and how the promotion of the product will be conducted in order to reach the consumers and customers.

(5)The nomadic approach of rearing, transporting, and selling livestock will be changed to using trucks to transport them if it involves long distance in order to avoid spreading of any diseases such as mad cow disease and other diseases that come from livestock feces as they are transported though out the country. Trading locations where buyers and sellers meet, and the days to meet are to be established in both rural and urban areas.

(6)Areas where people still live in poverty, a trade by barter may be established so as to allow the farmers who want to exchange items from their farms to bargain for exchange. This short-run method will continue until the economic development is in place and running.

(7)Foreign investment and property rights need to be considered as part of encouraging investments and savings in order to stimulate the economic growth. This method may help the developing countries to invest less money on capital goods, create more competitive markets, and in turns reduce or eliminate corruption.

(8)Establish local leaders by ethnicity, who will act as representatives or middlemen between the government and their ethnic group. These local leaders may be selected by group they represent and approved by the government to ensure they are working on behalf of the people they represent and not for their own self-interest. In addition, the African experts may be contracted to help establish the boundaries of no corruption.

(9)Individuals have certain religious beliefs and different ways of thinking, and as such need to be segregated according to their sect for the benefit of market structure and economic development. Individuals who understand that certain groups have designated times in which they pray will have no problem doing business with such groups. This may reduce tensions for those who understand the culture of those religious group, and for those, who do not there will be tensions and uneasiness, which is the reason for grouping citizens according to their religious sect.

(10)Government need to institute “watch dog groups” in order to police the programs and to make certain that the programs are in place and running. A 3-year trial needs to be established for any program of economic and market structure that is implemented for these countries. This is enough time to evaluate the program in place in order to ensure its workability. Experts in Africa need to be involved in all phases of implementation in order to combat corruption and promote stability.

(11)Poverty may be reduced if adequate and stable structure for economy and market is established, and the government leaders via the local leaders address all citizen’s problems. The essential necessities — housing, clothing and food – may be the top priorities for these countries in order to reduce the poverty.

(12)Professionals and skilled workers are to be encouraged through issuance of incentives in order to motivate them to stay and reside in these developing countries and help in the development of these countries rather than leaving for developed countries. Mass exodus from these developing countries only harms and delays the development of these countries.

(13)Construction of infrastructure such as roads, buildings, and bridges are important for the economic and market structure of developing countries. Food products and other necessities of life can be transported to their respective destinations as quickly as they are needed when good infrastructure is in place. It may also encourage in foreign investments. Investors will prefer to invest in stable countries to unstable countries.

(14)Construction and installation of adequate running water in developing countries and to all parts of the countries also will help in building stable economic and market structure. It will help in curtailing diseases such as typhoid’s and malaria that usually come from unclean water. It will also help the children to focus in education and literacy programs rather than traveling miles upon miles to fetch water from the streams and wells. Some of these children die in taking these water-fetching adventures.

(15)Installation of electrical system may help in the growth of communities. Businesses cannot operate adequately where electricity is lacking. As such, these countries will require electricity in all areas of the countries as a form of economic development and market structure in order to help businesses function and grow, help in the food storage, and eradicate waste of food products that would otherwise be stored safely in cold rooms and refrigeration.

(16)Social Organizations need to be introduced to help the poor get out of poverty, and give them the opportunity to operate their own small businesses. This type of organizations are set up by the government as not-for-profit organizations, and the purpose is to develop the people’s business skills and issue them interest free start-ups loans to enable them manage their own businesses, which in turn lead them to poverty free. They will guided them to the type of businesses to open, how to open them, where to open them, and why they should open those kinds of businesses.

(17)The potential goals may be achieved by enforcing the use of this model as a condition of receiving funding or foreign aid. As a way to check and ensure that monies do go to what they are intended for, developing countries pledge to use and implement this model. This model will check and police the development of the projects. The intention of this requirement is not to discriminate against developing countries, but to help the citizens of those countries as they have no way of benefiting from these funding and foreign aid that usually end up abused, misdirected, and misused for other personal and private purposes by the leaders due to corruption and venality.

Who Are the Developing Countries

World Bank defined developing countries as those with low-income economies with per capita incomes of $755 or less. World Bank is an International Organization that categorizes such countries as developing countries and also issues loans to them.

What Are Strand Chucks And What Are They Used For?

The concrete construction industry has a unique category known as prestress concrete. Prestress concrete components are an essential part of the construction of bridges, commercial buildings, parking structures, utility poles and others that require them to be resilient and long-lasting. This industry has long been a part of concrete construction, with plants located worldwide. It also requires equipment of the finest quality in order to create these prestress components, like strand chucks, an essential part of any concrete prestressing today.

A Necessary Part of the Whole

Due to its unique qualities, prestress concrete can withstand seismic disruptions much better than those that have not been prestressed. This process also lends a higher level of thermal resistance, allowing the concrete to maintain its integrity in a fire longer than a structure that contains non-stressed concrete. The process also lends a superior level of blast resistance to the structure, something that has become necessary in today’s world.

The process of stressing concrete requires the placing of a number of special cables known as strands in a steel reinforced form. The cables are run through holes in the form at each end, with a strand chuck placed on the cables sticking out at each end of the form. A hydraulic ram grabs the end of each cable and pulls, stretching it. The ram then releases the cable and the chuck grabs on and holds the cable under tension. When all the cables are pulled tight, concrete is then poured into the form and allowed to be bonded to the cables. Once the concrete has hardened, the devices are removed, transferring all of the tension from the form into the concrete, which raises its tensile strength.

Chucks and Accessories

The typical strand chuck will possess a cylindrical body with a tapered hole through which the cable will be pushed through. Three jaw assemblies consisting of tapered metal wedges with teeth are placed in the body and around the cable. If you try to pull the cable out of the device, the jaws will bite into the cable, locking it into place, even while under extreme pressure. A cap and spring are attached to the end of the body, to apply equal pressure on the jaws so that the cable is held with equal force.

There are various types of strand chucks used in the industry today. The one-time use devices include the anchor, splice and single-use chucks. To get the best use and value out of these important tools, it is recommended that they be cleaned, inspected and lubricated after every use. Any lubricant used must meet industry standards, and is available from the manufacturer. Lubricant should only be applied after cleaning and inspection to make sure the components are in order.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950′s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.