What Are Strand Chucks And What Are They Used For?

The concrete construction industry has a unique category known as prestress concrete. Prestress concrete components are an essential part of the construction of bridges, commercial buildings, parking structures, utility poles and others that require them to be resilient and long-lasting. This industry has long been a part of concrete construction, with plants located worldwide. It also requires equipment of the finest quality in order to create these prestress components, like strand chucks, an essential part of any concrete prestressing today.

A Necessary Part of the Whole

Due to its unique qualities, prestress concrete can withstand seismic disruptions much better than those that have not been prestressed. This process also lends a higher level of thermal resistance, allowing the concrete to maintain its integrity in a fire longer than a structure that contains non-stressed concrete. The process also lends a superior level of blast resistance to the structure, something that has become necessary in today’s world.

The process of stressing concrete requires the placing of a number of special cables known as strands in a steel reinforced form. The cables are run through holes in the form at each end, with a strand chuck placed on the cables sticking out at each end of the form. A hydraulic ram grabs the end of each cable and pulls, stretching it. The ram then releases the cable and the chuck grabs on and holds the cable under tension. When all the cables are pulled tight, concrete is then poured into the form and allowed to be bonded to the cables. Once the concrete has hardened, the devices are removed, transferring all of the tension from the form into the concrete, which raises its tensile strength.

Chucks and Accessories

The typical strand chuck will possess a cylindrical body with a tapered hole through which the cable will be pushed through. Three jaw assemblies consisting of tapered metal wedges with teeth are placed in the body and around the cable. If you try to pull the cable out of the device, the jaws will bite into the cable, locking it into place, even while under extreme pressure. A cap and spring are attached to the end of the body, to apply equal pressure on the jaws so that the cable is held with equal force.

There are various types of strand chucks used in the industry today. The one-time use devices include the anchor, splice and single-use chucks. To get the best use and value out of these important tools, it is recommended that they be cleaned, inspected and lubricated after every use. Any lubricant used must meet industry standards, and is available from the manufacturer. Lubricant should only be applied after cleaning and inspection to make sure the components are in order.

History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.

Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.

The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.

The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.

The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.

The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.

The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.

Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.

Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.

Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.

Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.

The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.

Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.

The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.

The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).

There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.

Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.

In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.

Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.

Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.

The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.

In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.

The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.

In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.

In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.

Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.

Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.

In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.

During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.

Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950′s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.

In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.

In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.

Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.

Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

Welding and You: The Industrial Process You Benefit From Every Day

Welding is a relatively simple and easy to understand process, right? Use heat to join two pieces of metal. Whether you’re repairing something or creating something. While the process can easily be explained in as little as a few words, history has given us a many different methods to join metal, and diligent innovators have continually expanded on how technology can consistently bring us more with flame, electric arcs, and laser lights.

When you think about welding, chances are you picture sparks flying – reflected in the welder’s dark visor. However, the history of welding stretches back farther than you may think. The earliest recorded historical evidence of welding can be traced back to the middle ages, in the bronze age. These early weldments tended to be golden boxes. Elsewhere, the Egyptians were also pioneering the art of welding – much like they did for many other metal fabricating processes. For instance, many of the Egyptian tools discovered by archaeologists were welded. In any case, the process of welding for these ancient people didn’t take place because of flame and electricity wasn’t invented yet, but blacksmiths achieved a similar result with heat, hammer, and anvil. Soon, welding by brute force, flame, and steel would be replaced by a more scientific approach.

With the industrial revolution and the turn of the 19th century, welding experienced major technological advancement in the form of an open acetylene flame. This allowed for a much higher degree of precision for small and intricate metal tools. In 1800, Humphrey Davy – a British chemist and inventor – also developed a battery operated tool that created an electric arc, this proved invaluable when it came to easily welding metals. With all of this innovation, the industrial world had access to multiple welding methods, which would continually be improved upon.

By the time World Wars 1 and 2 ended, welding made a major impact on the war effort and continued to become much more prominent. In fact, during WWII, President Roosevelt even wrote to Winston Churchill to boast about the advancements America had made in the field of welding, allowing the U.S. Navy to produce ships faster than ever before. Thankfully, those advanced processes came at an invaluable time, where the need for automatic (and more effective) welding made a remarkable distance when it came to precision and quality. For years afterwards – and the present day – inventors consistently built upon the arc welder and other welding tools, gradually contributing to what would become the modern-day equivalent of welding tools that provide businesses with welding services everywhere, every day, around the clock.

Welding played a major role in bringing the manufacturing and fabrication world to where it is today, and actively influences the way products come together everywhere. For example, in the 60′s General Motors installed the world’s first industrial robot, which was capable of automatically performing spot welds, step-by-step, with commands stored on a magnetic drum. In 1969, Russian Cosmonauts used welding in space, leading to future technological advancements that have made welding crucial in the construction and repair of the international space station. Back on earth, you interact with welded products every day, and it’s been determined that more than 50% of fabrications in the U.S. require welding. Some of these include bridges, ships, computers, oil rigs, farm equipment, medical devices, cell phones, and more. When you think of it, it’s pretty clear that welding helps us accomplish a lot– it helps us get where we’re going, and it helps us stay healthy, fed, safe, and in touch with those we love.